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Water reduction mechanism of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers

Today'' s concrete superplasticizers are essentially prepared by worsening numerous products such as polycarboxylate water-reducing mother alcohol as well as polycarboxylate slump-preserving mommy liquor plus retarders, air-entraining agents, and also defoaming agents. Among them, the role of water-reducing mother remedy in superplasticizer is irreplaceable. Maybe the amount of mommy remedy will certainly transform because of the adjustment of concrete material, however I have actually never heard that water-reducing mother service is not added to superplasticizer because the sand is too good.
The water-reducing mom fluid is made use of as the outright primary product in the water-reducing agent, as well as its function is to minimize the concrete water-cement ratio (indirectly enhance the stamina of the concrete), as well as at the very same time guarantee the fluidity and also workability of the concrete mix, and also ensure the strength of the concrete. At the exact same time, it likewise assists in the job of the building system.

We understand that along with cement and also water in concrete, the impact of the staying materials on the superplasticizer admixture particles is essentially adsorption (waste), so the water decreasing agent is generally focused on cement. So initially, let’& rsquo; s learn about the hydration procedure of cement.

The hydration process of general portland concrete is divided right into 3 phases:

( 1) Dissolution stage: When the cement touches with water, the surface area of the fragments begins to moisten, as well as a percentage of hydration items are generated, which are quickly dissolved in water. The subjected new surface area permits hydration to continue till a saturated solution of hydration items is formed.
( 2) Gelation phase: Due to the saturation of the option, the item that remains to be moistened can no longer be liquified, however is straight sped up as colloidal fragments. With the rise of hydration items, the hydration accumulations, and the cement slurry gradually sheds its plasticity, causing a coagulation sensation.
( 3) Condensation stage: The colloid composed of microscopic crystals is not secure, and can gradually recrystallize to develop macroscopic crystals, to ensure that the mechanical stamina of the solidified body of the cement slurry is constantly enhanced, and lastly it ends up being a concrete rock with a particular mechanical toughness.

In the cement slurry, the dispersion system of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers is typically thought about to be the main duty of steric obstacle as well as the additional duty of electrostatic repulsion. In addition, the complexation of calcium ions and also the lubrication of hydration film also contribute. important role.

1. Steric obstacle:
The hydration procedure of cement will certainly make the cement particles draw in each other, leading to a flocculation framework.
During the development of the flocculation framework, the cement particles will envelop a component of the water molecules, as well as the encapsulated water represent around 10% -30% of the total mixing water (this may be the reason why the water lowering agent has a water reducing rate limitation). Because it is covered by cement particles, it can not participate in the totally free circulation and lubrication in between cement particles, therefore affecting the fluidness of concrete mixes. When the polycarboxylate concrete admixture molecules initial entered contact with the cement particles, the negatively charged primary chain in the polycarboxylate concrete admixture particles can be adsorbed externally of the favorably charged concrete fragments, that is, an "anchoring" phenomenon happens, while the polycarboxylate superplasticizer The long side chain in the molecule is prolonged in the fluid phase of the cement slurry to develop an adsorption layer with a particular density, and can create a three-dimensional and also crossed long side chain with other polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecules expanding in the liquid phase of the cement slurry at the exact same time. Conformation. When the cement fragments move toward each various other, the adsorption layer overlaps, as well as the bigger the overlapping variety, the higher the repulsion in between the cement fragments, thereby improving the dispersibility of the concrete fragments. Damage the flocculation structure in between cement molecules. The release of the water entraped by concrete flocculation can additionally be understood as the water reducing agent molecules improve the lubricating use price of the water molecules to the concrete molecules, and also do not raise the water or minimize the variety of water particles out of slim air.

2. The concept of electrostatic repulsion:
Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecules contain anionic groups (COO2-), and in the early hydration procedure of concrete, the surface of cement fragments has positive charges (Ca2+), consequently, anionic Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles adsorb to favorably billed cement fragments surface. Make the cement fragments into a "hedgehog" with adverse cost. Because the cement particles with the exact same unfavorable cost fend off each various other (electrostatic repulsion), the dispersibility between the concrete bits is improved. At the same time, the negatively charged carboxyl teams and positively billed calcium ions in the cement paste form unsteady facilities. After the calcium ions liquified in the concrete system are caught, the calcium ion concentration reduces considerably, reducing the calcium ions in the system. It can reduce the development of gel fragments and hence slow down the hydration price of cement, hinder the hydration of cement, and also enhance the diffusion performance of cement particles. The higher the material of carboxylate ions in the Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer, that is, the better the anion charge density, the better the diffusion efficiency of concrete bits (acid-ether ratio). The reduction of calcium ion focus can inhibit the preliminary hydration of cement. With the continuous progress of hydration, the complex will certainly decompose by itself, so Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer has a specific retarding result without impacting the toughness of concrete.

3. Lubrication
The branched chain of the polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particle has hydrophilic teams. These teams form a water film on the surface of the cement bits by integrating with water particles, which decreases the surface energy of the concrete fragments. Slips easily. The mixed impact of the above results in separation in between the cement bits. The macroscopic efficiency is that the concrete combination has better fluidness.
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