What is the classification of new ceramic materials?
The new ceramic material has its unique superiority in performance. In terms of thermal and mechanical properties, high-temperature resistance, heat insulation, high hardness, wear resistance, etc. In the electrical properties of insulation, piezoelectric, semiconductor, magnetic, etc.; In the chemical aspect has catalysis, corrosion resistance, adsorption and other functions; In biology, it has certain biological compatibility and can be used as biological structure materials. But it also has its drawbacks, such as brittleness. Therefore, the research and development of new functional ceramics is an important field in material science.
Traditional ceramics mainly use natural rocks, minerals, clay and other materials as raw materials. The new type of ceramics is made of high purity inorganic compounds, which are made of fine crystalline inorganic materials by forming, sintering and other treatments under strict control. It has a series of superior physical, chemical and biological properties, its application range is far beyond the traditional ceramics, this kind of ceramics is also known as special ceramics or fine ceramics.
By chemical composition
Mainly divided into two categories: one is pure oxide ceramics, such as Al2O3, ZrO2, MgO, CaO, BeO, ThO2, etc.; The other is non-oxide ceramics, such as carbides, borides, nitrides and silicides.
Divided by performance and characteristics
Can be divided into high-temperature ceramics, ultra-hard ceramics, high toughness ceramics, semiconductor ceramics. Electrolyte ceramics, magnetic ceramics, conductive ceramics, etc. With the continuous improvement of composition, structure and process, new types of ceramics are emerging in an endless stream.
According to its application different division
They can also be divided into engineering structural ceramics and functional ceramics.
Solid-state laser materials, optical fiber, optical storage materials and various ceramic sensors can be manufactured by using the optical properties of ceramics. In addition, ceramics are also used as piezoelectric materials, magnetic materials, substrate materials, etc. In short, the new ceramic materials are almost in every field of modern science and technology, and the application prospect is very broad.